Post September 11 backlash violence has been primarily directed at those perceived to resemble the enemy – a turbaned and bearded Osama bin Laden, Al-Qaeda leader. Nearly all people who wear turbans in the United States are Sikh, members of the world’s fifth largest religion who trace their heritage to the Punjab region of India. On September 15, 2001 in Mesa, Arizona, Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh man, became the first person murdered in the hate epidemic. Out of the estimated nineteen people murdered in the immediate aftermath, four were turbaned Sikh men.
Despite the trauma that the Sikh American community has undergone because of these hate crimes, the federal government does not keep statistics on anti-Sikh hate crimes. The FBI simply includes them in anti-Muslims hate crime statistics.
In a Washington Post commentary, Kaur argues that not keeping separate statistics for Sikhs is “wrong and dangerous.” Hate crimes against Sikhs, she says, shouldn’t always be simply seen as a “case of mistaken identity.” Though in many cases it has been proved that crimes occurred under the premise that Sikhs were Muslim or Arab, Sikhs are attacked for simply being different, for not fitting into the (false) homogenous picture of America that some fearful whites cling to. Kaur:
I believe it would not have mattered much to Wade Michael Page [the Oak Creek terrorist] if he knew that the people he killed were Sikh rather than Muslim. From what we have gathered so far, Page is just like others who have targeted Sikhs in hate violence: they see people with dark skin, beards, and turbans as the enemy.
No matter if specific anti-Muslim sentiment or more general xenophobia drive hate crimes against them, “Sikhs deserve the dignity of being a statistic.” If we can’t even grant them something so simple and small—documenting hate crimes against them—how can we ever begin to take the next and most important step: acknowledging and honoring Sikh’s dignity as human beings.
Tomorrow’s post will discuss the recent rise in hate crimes against Muslims.
In my last post, I said I’m not sure that America is beyond the kind of bigotry and intolerance that led to the internment of Japanese Americans several decades ago. And I think the following video proves my point.
Last month, in Orange County, California, Muslim families were attending a dinner hosted by Islamic Circle of North America Relief USA in order to raise money to
establish women’s shelters and fight hunger and homelessness in the area. As they walked into the event, they were greeted by protestors who shouted bigoted and ignorant slurs, like “Go back home!” and “You beat up your wife, too?” Earlier in the day, in the park across the way, a protest was held in which local and federal government officials made statements like “I know quite a few Marines who would be very happy to help these terrorists to an early meeting in paradise.”
(The video was compiled by the Council on American Islamic Relations, and features video from local news stations and Muslims attending the event.)
This video is beyond saddening, but it is only one example among many, I’m afraid. This next video, which was filmed outside the White House, portrays protestors shouting at a Muslim man who prayed there. The full details can be found in this Washington Post article.
I truly hope we can say “never again” to institutionalized hate in America. But we can’t say it naively and passively, assuming that we’re too “advanced” or too “modern” or too “Westernized” to be intolerant. As I wrote in a commentary while I was a reporter at Y-Press, we said “never again” to genocide while inaugurating the Holocaust museum in Washington, D.C. in 1993; but a year later, genocide occurred in Rwanda while the Western world looked on.
We must ensure by our words and our actions that we are actively creating an environment that is not conducive to hate. Apathy and passivity is what allowed the institutionalization of hate in Nazi Germany and 1994 Rwanda.
Passivity allows for the scenes in this video to happen. A few years ago, ABC’s “What Would You Do?” did this special on discrimination of Muslims in America. When bystanders saw Muslims being discriminated against, many of them did nothing to stop it.
Sadly, hate against Muslims has become institutionalized in this country, and if passivity like the kind in the ABC special continues, institutionalized hate will only increase. This past week, we witnessed the Congressional hearing that investigated “radicalization” in the Muslim American community, and in several states efforts are being made to ban sharia law. Sharia law is greatly misunderstood in the West, and sadly has come to be synonymous with oppression and terror. (I hope to do a post on sharia sometime in the near future.)
Apart from political institutionalization, hate has become most entrenched in the mainstream media. It is possible for TV show hosts to make blatant lies about Islam on their shows, and yet no one holds them accountable for it. Viewers often assume that because those on TV claim to be reporters or journalists or objective commentators, they are upholding journalistic ethics—being truthful, presenting all the information, and just plain being respectful. This assumption is horribly naive. Cable “news” programs especially, whether or not they are “liberal” or “conservative,” are more concerned with appealing to an already established base and shaping the political discourse in a way that profits to them. We must question the news we receive and consciously seek to verify what we hear and see on TV.
In some of my blog posts I hope I’ve been able to provide some facts that will reveal how misguided the claims of cable hosts and guests can be. Despite the fact that cable networks have 24 hours of time in which to present coverage, their treatment of “news” lacks the nuance and depth necessary to flesh out many of the complex issues related to Islam and the Muslim community.
What we need instead of talk-show hosts that demonize and protests that spew hate are things like this: the “Today, I am a Muslim Too” rally that took place in New York City last weekend. This was a positive action taken with the intent of creating solidarity with and better understanding of Muslim Americans.
If we want to really say “never again,” and truly make institutionalized hate a part of our country’s past, then we must act—whether that means expanding our news sources, challenging a friend’s stereotypical comment, or visiting our local mosques (without signs).
We cannot sit idly by.
We know all too well the damage that passivity can do.
I’d really like to hear your thoughts on this topic. Do you think America has become more Islamophobic? If so, what evidence have you seen in your daily life, and what can we do to reverse this trend? If not, why? Do you think my criticism of the media is fair?
In a few weeks, CNN will be airing a special called “Unwelcome: The Muslims Next Door.” Below is the link to the promo video. I will be interested to see how this issue of Islamophobia is covered. As I alluded earlier, I am not always pleased by CNN’s coverage of Islam, so I am curious to watch this piece.
“I remember doing a number of radio interviews [right after 9/11] saying we can’t do to the Muslims what we did to the Japanese after Pearl Harbor.” (New York magazine)
These are the words of Peter King, a long-time House representative from Long Island and the head of the House Homeland Security committee. Before 9/11, he was an active supporter of his Muslim community; he even spoke and cut the ribbon at the opening ceremony of the Islamic Center of Long Island. As his quote suggests, he was concerned that post-9/11 backlash would lead to unwarranted suspicion of Muslims and unjust government actions taken against the group as a whole.
However, today King seems to be encouraging the climate of mistrust he sought to avoid ten years ago.
This morning, the House committee on Homeland Security—of which King is the head— began a hearing to examine “the Extent of Radicalization in the American Muslim Community and that Community’s Response.” King is concerned that Muslims in America are becoming more radicalized and that the Muslim community is doing little to counter that trend.
Are King’s concerns legitimate?
In one respect, yes. We have seen an increase in the attempted domestic terror plots
committed by American Muslims in the years since 9/11 (Triangle Center on Terror and Homeland Security, Figure 2). This attempted terrorism is considered a strong indicator of radicalization. (It is important to note that the number of terror attempts dropped by half, despite the fact that the attempts received more media attention.)
An increase in radicalization, however, cannot only be ascribed to members of the Muslim community. In 2010, the number of hate groups operating in the US reached its peak, topping 1,000. Some of these groups include neo-Nazis, white nationalists, neo-Confederates, racist skinheads, Klansmen, and black separatists (Southern Poverty Law Center). “Other hate groups on the list target gays or immigrants, and some specialize in producing racist music or propaganda denying the Holocaust,” the center’s report also says.
Clearly, radicalization is not just a phenomenon we see in a small number of Muslim Americans; it is a phenomenon that has been seen among whites, blacks, Christians and others across America. As Mississippi representative Bennie Thompson, a ranking member of the House Homeland Security Committee said during the hearing, radicalization is a nation-wide problem affecting Americans in all ethnic and religious groups. Because of this, he called on King to hold a hearing to address the radicalization of anti-government and white supremacist groups as well.
He, many others, and myself believe that pigeonholing one group, as King has done with this hearing, is dangerous. It not only ignores important security threats (the 1,000 hate groups I just mentioned), but it has the potential to create further radicalization among American Muslim individuals, who may feel that their government does not trust them, simply because of their religious background.
Minnesota Representative Keith Ellison, the first Muslim elected to Congress, who agreed to testify but didn’t agree with the specificity of the hearings, said, “If you start to make a community feel besieged, they’re just going to feel more reticent. It’s just a natural human reaction to feel like a target.” (New York Magazine)
He also recognizes the need to investigate all forms of radicalism in order to better secure our country. “If you took every Muslim in America and put them in a jail, it wouldn’t have stopped Gabby Giffords from being shot. It wouldn’t have saved the people in Oklahoma City. It wouldn’t have saved the guard at the Holocaust Museum. It wouldn’t have saved the students at Columbine or Virginia Tech. To me, it’s like he’s saying we’re going to deal with drugs, but we’re only going to deal with black drug dealers.” (New York Magazine)
Even the title of the hearing itself is problematic, because it places the emphasis on the Muslim “community,” not on individuals. This title only increases the perception that the US government is at war with Islam, and as Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf of the Cordoba Initiative has expressed, this perception has the potential to increase radicalization of Muslims abroad.
Now I’ll turn to King’s second concern: that the American Muslim community has not done enough to prevent radicalization and stop violence.
This claim, however, has been refuted by the Justice community and specifically by Attorney General Eric Holder, who asserts that the Muslim community has been highly helpful in providing tips that have resulted in the disruption of terror plots. (CBS)
According to the same Triangle Center study, fellow Muslims were most often those who provided initial information to law enforcement about Muslim American terror plots since 9/11 (48 out of 120 cases).
Though King disagrees, he has not produced any sources to support his claim that Muslims are uncooperative. (New York Magazine)
I also take issue with part of King’s list of witnesses. He was right to ask Muslim representative Ellison to testify, yet he failed to invite the other Muslim representative, Andre Carson (who represents my district in Indiana.) No federal law enforcement officials were present; only a sheriff from Los Angeles was. Thankfully, John Dingell, who represents Dearborn, Michigan, a city with a large Muslim population, was invited to speak, and reminded us that we can’t let a neo-McCarthyism—focused this time on Islam instead of Communism—take root.
I was also disappointed to see that mainstream Muslim leaders like Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf (of the Cordoba Initiative and the American Society for Muslim Advancement) and Imam Mohamed Magid (of the Islamic Society of North America—located outside Indianapolis!) were not asked to testify. Only Zudhi Jasser (of the American Islamic Forum for Democracy), who was unknown to me until the hearings, was present.
Aside from Ellison and Dingell, it seems that the witnesses were brought in to back King’s own misguided positions, not to provide the full range of discourse needed.
It is hard to take King or this hearing seriously, not only because his list of witnesses, but also because of previous statements he’s made about American Muslims and his support of the Irish terrorist group, the IRA.
In 2004, King supported the claim that 80% of mosques in American were run by radical imams, and in 2007, he said that America had “too many mosques.” The first statement is clearly unsubstantiated, false, and ultimately offensive to American Muslims and their supporters like me. And his second statement questions Muslims’ First Amendment rights to express their religion by building places of worship.
King is strongly opposed to Islamic terrorism, yet he staunchly supported the IRA, a violent terrorist group that operated in Northern Ireland. Tom Parker, a counterterrorism expert at Amnesty International, expresses my thoughts well: “My problem is with the hypocrisy. If you say that terrorist violence is acceptable in one setting because you happen to agree with the cause, then you lose the authority to condemn it in another setting.” (Washington Post)
Why King decided to hold this hearing in unclear to me. The reasons he cites are, as I hope I’ve shown, incomplete and misinformed. While I do not have any definite answers, I fear politics may play a part. As the Park 51 Center made headlines last summer in anticipation of the midterm elections, this hearing is making the news as talk of the 2012 elections begins. The American Muslim community became a political pawn last summer, and I fear that the same will happen in the future, because of this hearing. Sadly, the climate of fear of Muslims, created and sustained by politicians and the news media, can be easily exploited for political gain.
Through today’s hearing, King hoped to increase America’s security and protect its values. However, I’m afraid the hearing chipped away at both, just as anti-Japanese policy did 70 years ago. We cannot let the Muslim Americans of the 2000s become the Japanese Americans of the 1940s.
I don’t think it is overly dramatic to say that this hearing could be the first step down a dangerous and bigoted path that our country has unfortunately walked before.
Many people might counter me, saying, “That could never happen again. Today is different. We are more tolerant now.”